Marina Trkman – University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Public Administration; Gosarjeva ulica 5, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Tracing applications;


Abstract: During a crisis such as COVID-19 citizens of countries all over the world were asked to use a proximity tracing application voluntarily and in­stall it on their smartphones. Even though the use of the application in times of the pandemic crises was promoted as crucially important, many citizens re­fused to install it. In this paper, we raised the question of why. Previous litera­ture confirmed the impact of universal UTAUT predictors, namely, social in­fluence, performance expectancy and effort expectancy, on intention to use. However, the impact of the predictors has not yet been confirmed in actual use. We propose a research model to examine the direct influence of the pre­dictors on actual use. Furthermore, we assess if the impact of age, gender and education on PTA’s use behavior is significant. We present our preliminary re­sults on data collected in Germany.

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7th International Scientific Conference – EMAN 2023 – Economics and Management: How to Cope With Disrupted Times, Ljubljana, Slovenia, March 23, 2023, SELECTED PAPERS, published by: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans, Belgrade, Serbia; ISBN 978-86-80194-70-7, ISSN 2683-4510, DOI:

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Suggested citation
Trkman, M. (2023). The Impact of Gender, Education, and Age on Installing a Proximity Tracing Application: Survey on a German Population. In V. Bevanda (Ed.), International Scientific Conference – EMAN 2023: Vol 7. Selected Papers (pp. 193-198). Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans.


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