Shyqyri Llaci – Faculty of Economics, University of Tirana, Str. “Arben Broci”, Tirana, Albania

Blanka Xhani – Faculty of Economics, University of Tirana, Str. “Arben Broci”, Tirana, Albania

Turnover intention;
Time budget pressure;
Client Importance;
Personality type;
Unethical behavior;
Big 4;
Audit firms;


Abstract: The 21st century has witnessed the bankruptcy of many large cor­porations because of the opportunistic behavior of management reflected in the financial statement. A realistic review from the board of directors to the internal management can only be carried out with genuine data, which are distributed along with the financial statements. This allows shareholders and other stakeholders to examine the company’s performance and make accu­rate decisions.

All this control is carried out by external auditors who certify the financial statements. Although it is challenging to evaluate an auditor’s job, this pa­per sought to pinpoint the causes of their opportunistic conduct in this study. The authors examined five variables that could cause opportunistic behav­ior, including time budget pressure, client importance, personality type and turnover intention, and analyzed their attitude to critical ethical issues in situ­ations they face during their work as external auditors.

This research is based on the quantitative primary data. The sampled popula­tion is 150 auditors in Tirana, from the 236 certified auditors registered in Alba­nia, until February 2023; also, from the 65 audit firms, only the Big 4 are taken, to gather primary data and regression analysis is used to examine every sin­gle one of them. The questionnaire was created based on previous studies and was distributed through a survey in Google Forms, using a hybrid data collec­tion approach. As a primary step, a literature review was conducted regard­ing the ethical issues of an auditor during the audit of financial statements.

The study concludes that time budget pressure, client importance, and per­sonality type were the most important factors for the opportunistic behav­ior of auditors in Albania, and has found that the impact of the turnover fac­tor is minimal.

Download full paper

7th International Scientific Conference – EMAN 2023 – Economics and Management: How to Cope With Disrupted Times, Ljubljana, Slovenia, March 23, 2023, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS, published by: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans, Belgrade, Serbia; ISBN 978-86-80194-69-1, ISSN 2683-4510, DOI:

Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission. 

Suggested citation
Llaci, S., & Xhani, B. (2023). Opportunistic Behavior and the Impact on Audit Quality in Albania. In V. Bevanda (Ed.), International Scientific Conference – EMAN 2023: Vol 7. Conference Proceedings (pp. 75-85). Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans.


AICPA. (n.d.). Pre-Clarity Statements on Auditing Standards, SAS No. 54, Illegal Acts by Clients. Retrieved from 

Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. (2020). The 2020 Report to the Nations, p. 31, FIG. 21 What anti-fraud controls are most common? 

Balasingam, S., Arumugam, Dh., & Sanatova, A. (2019). Auditors Acceptance of Dysfunctional Be­havior in Kazakhstan. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering (IJRTE), 7(5S). ISSN: 2278-3075.

Bushman, R. M., Piotroski, J. D., & Smith, A. J. (2004). What Determines Corporate Transparency? Journal of Accounting Research, 42(2), 207-252.

Chan, K., Kleinman, G., & Lee, P. (2009). The impact of Sarbanes-Oxley on internal control reme­diation. International Journal of Accounting and Information Management, 17, 53–65.

Chong, V. K., & Monroe, G. S. (2013). The impact of the antecedents and consequences of job burn­out on junior accountants’ turnover intentions: A structural equation modelling approach. Ac­counting and Finance, 55(1). 

Cooper, D. J., Dacin, T., & Palmer, D. (2014). Fraud in Accounting, Organizations and Society: Ex­tending the Boundaries of Research. Accounting, Organizations & Society, 38(6-7), 440-457. University of Alberta School of Business Research Paper No. 2014-04.

Dirsmith, M. W., Heian, J. B., & Covaleski, M. A. (1997). Structure and agency in an institutional­ized setting: The application and social transformation of control in the Big Six. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 22(1), 1-27.

Gertsson, N., Sylvander, J., Broberg, P., & Friberg, J. (2017). Exploring audit assistants’ decision to leave the audit profession. Managerial Auditing Journal, 32(9), 879-898. 

Hair, J. F., Celsi, M., Money, A., Samouel, P., & Page, M. (2016). The Essentials of Business Re­search Methods, 3rd Edition. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7656-4613-2.

Kaptein, M. (1998). Ethics Management: Auditing and developing the ethical content of organiza­tions. Issues in Business Ethics (IBET, Volume 10).

Kaptein, M. (2011). Understanding unethical behavior by unraveling ethical culture. SAGE Journal, 64(6). 

Kaptein, M. (2020). Ethics Audit. In Encyclopedia of Business and Professional Ethics. Publisher: Springer.

Margheim, L., Kelley, T., & Pattison, D. (2005). An Empirical Analysis of The Effects of Audi­tor Time Budget Pressure and Time Deadline Pressure. The Journal of Applied Business Re­search, 21(1).

Otley, D. T., & Pierce, B. J. (1995). The control problem in public accounting firms: An empirical study of the impact of leadership style. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 20(5), 405-420.

Paino, H., Smith, M., & Ismail, Z. (2012). Auditor acceptance of dysfunctional behavior: An explan­atory model using individual factors. Journal of Applied Accounting Research, 13(1), 37-55.  

Rayburn, J. M., & Rayburn, L. G. (1996). Relationship between Machiavellianism and Type A Per­sonality and Ethical-Orientation. Journal of Business Ethics, 15(11), 1209-1219.

Rodríguez, S. G., Márquez-Illescas, G., & Nikel, M. N. (2020). Denial of Corruption: Voluntary Dis­closure of Bribery Information. Journal of Business Ethics, 162(3), 609-626.  

Syam, M. A., Djaddang, S., & Ghozali, I. (2020). The Attributes of Dysfunctional Audit Behavior (DAB): Second Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis. International Journal of Financial Re­search, 11(2), 311-322.

Windsor, C. A., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (1995). The effect of client management bargaining power, moral reasoning development, and belief in a just world on auditor independence. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 20(7-8), 701-720.

Share this

Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans – UdEkoM Balkan
179 Ustanicka St, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia

Udekom Balkans is a dynamic non-governmental and non-profit organization, established in 2014 with a mission to foster the growth of scientific knowledge within the Balkan region and beyond. Our primary objectives include advancing the fields of management and economics, as well as providing educational resources to our members and the wider public.

Who We Are: Our members include esteemed university professors from various scientific disciplines, postgraduate students, and experts from ministries, public administrations, private and public enterprises, multinational corporations, associations, and similar organizations.

Building Bridges Together: Over the course of nine years since our establishment, the Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans has established impactful partnerships with more than 1,000 diverse institutions across the Balkan region and worldwide.

EMAN conference publications are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.