Petr Štumpf – Faculty of Management, Prague University of Economics and Business, Jarošovská 1117/II, 377 01 Jindřichův
Hradec, Czech Republic
Jitka Mattyašovská – Faculty of Management, Prague University of Economics and Business, Jarošovská 1117/II, 377 01 Jindřichův
Hradec, Czech Republic
Adriana Šťastná – Faculty of Management, Prague University of Economics and Business, Jarošovská 1117/II, 377 01 Jindřichův
Hradec, Czech Republic


5th International Scientific Conference – EMAN 2021 – Economics and Management: How to Cope With Disrupted Times, Online/Virtual, March 18, 2021, SELECTED PAPERS published by: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans, Belgrade, Serbia; ISBN 978-86-80194-44-8, ISSN 2683-4510


A tourism destination is defined as an open, complex and adaptive system in which numerous
relations in the economic, social and environmental spheres are generated. This paper aims to define
a conceptual model of tourism destination management as a complex system and to identify the role of
entrepreneurs as key stakeholder in a tourism destination. The main methodological approaches were
systems thinking and system dynamics. A Causal Loops Diagram (CLD) enabled to cover the complexity
of the tourism system and to identify relations among a number of stakeholders and elements in a
tourism destination. The authors identified crucial elements of the entrepreneur sub-system involved in
a high number of causal loops to establish the importance of entrepreneurs in the destination management
system. Profits of individual entrepreneurs and the occupancy of hospitality and tourism services
represent the model’s most frequent variables from the entrepreneurs’ perspective.


Destination management, System dynamics, Systems thinking, Causal loop diagram.


Baggio, R., & Sainaghi, R. (2011). Complex and chaotic tourism systems: Towards a quantitative
approach. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(6),
Bieger, T. (2008). Management von Destinationen. Oldenbourg.
Borštnar, M. K., Kljajić, M., Škraba, A., Kofjač, D., & Rajkovič, V. (2011). The relevance of
facilitation in group decision making supported by a simulation model: The Relevance of
Facilitation in Group Decision Making. System Dynamics Review, 27(3), 270–293. https://
Farrell, B. H., & Twining-Ward, L. (2004). Reconceptualizing Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research,
31(2), 274–295.
Forrester, J. W. (1961). Industrial dynamics. Productivity Press.
Jackson, M. C. (2003). Systems thinking: Creative holism for managers. John Wiley & Sons.
Jere Jakulin, T. (2016). System dynamics models as decision-making tools in agritourism. Agricultura,
Jere Jakulin, T. (2017). Systems Approach to Tourism: A Methodology for Defining Complex
Tourism System. Organizacija, 50(3).
Jere Lazanski, T., & Kljajic, M. (2006). Systems approach to complex systems modelling
with special regards to tourism. Kybernetes, 35(7/8), 1048–1058. https://doi.
Kaspar, C. (1976). Le tourisme, objet d’étude scientifique. The Tourist Review, 31(4), 2–5. https://
Laesser, C., & Beritelli, P. (2013). St. Gallen Consensus on Destination Management. Journal
of Destination Marketing & Management, 2(1), 46–49.
Lew, A., & McKercher, B. (2006). Modeling Tourist Movements. Annals of Tourism Research,
33(2), 403–423.

Mai, T., & Smith, C. (2018). Scenario-based planning for tourism development using system
dynamic modelling: A case study of Cat Ba Island, Vietnam. Tourism Management, 68,
Patterson, T., Gulden, T., Cousins, K., & Kraev, E. (2004). Integrating environmental, social
and economic systems: A dynamic model of tourism in Dominica. Ecological Modelling,
175(2), 121–136.
Ritchie, J. R. B. (2003). The competitive destination: A sustainable tourism perspective. CABI
Rodriguez-Diaz, M., & Espino-Rodriguez, T. F. (2007). A Model of Strategic Evaluation of a
Tourism Destination Based on Internal and Relational Capabilities. Journal of Travel Research,
46(4), 368–380.
Ropret, M., Jere Jakulin, T., & Likar, B. (2014). The systems approach to the improvement
of innovation in Slovenian tourism. Kybernetes, 43(3/4), 427–444. https://doi.
Schianetz, K., Kavanagh, L., & Lockington, D. (2007). The Learning Tourism Destination:
The potential of a learning organisation approach for improving the sustainability of tourism
destinations. Tourism Management, 28(6), 1485–1496.
Sedarati, P., Santos, S., & Pintassilgo, P. (2019). System Dynamics in Tourism Planning and
Development. Tourism Planning & Development, 16(3), 256–280.
Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization (1st
ed.). Doubleday/Currency.
Sterman, J. (2000). Business dynamics: Systems thinking and modeling for a complex world.
Štumpf, P., & Vojtko, V. (2016). The System Dynamics Model for Support of the Destination
Management in South Bohemia. Business Trends, 6(4), 43–61.
Tegegne, W. A., Moyle, B. D., & Becken, S. (2018). A qualitative system dynamics approach
to understanding destination image. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8,
Vojtko, V., & Volfová, H. (2015). Regional Sustainable Tourism—A System Dynamic Perspective.
In Tourism & Hospitality—Sustainability and responsibility. Profess Consulting.

Download full paper

Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans – UdEkoM Balkan
179 Ustanicka St, 11000 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia

EMAN conference publications are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.