Kate Trajkova – University American College Skopje, Treta Makedonska Brigada Str. No 60 Skopje, North Macedonia
Nikola Sterjovski – City College, University of York Europe Campus, Leontos Sofou 3 Thessaloniki, 546 26 Greece
Marko Andonov – University American College Skopje, Treta Makedonska Brigada Str. No 60 Skopje, North Macedonia
5th International Scientific Conference – EMAN 2021 – Economics and Management: How to Cope With Disrupted Times, Online/Virtual, March 18, 2021, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS published by: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans, Belgrade, Serbia; ISBN 978-86-80194-43-1, ISSN 2683-4510
The archetype for optimal functionality of modern organizations in unstable and disruptive
conditions, known as the new normality, since the outbreak of Covid-19 has become one of the latest
paradigms for contemporary management. The challenge arises in the process of creating organizational
competences for effective responses to the influences of Covid-19 and securing sustainability
reflected as organizational resilience.
This paper aims to present the theoretical contours and conceptualization of organizational resilience.
The analysis of the theoretical background describes affective, cognitive, relational, and structural
mechanisms which are distinct constitutive dimensions of the concept. The research agenda provides
answers to the questions regarding the strength of the antecedents through a frame that covers three
dimensions: Situational awareness, Adaptive Capability, Individual participation and Engagement.
Methods: based on the structural dimensions, for the purposes of this paper, quantitative research was
conducted, with a questionnaire on a sample of 138 respondents from companies with domestic and
foreign capital located in North Macedonia. The statistical analysis of the data is presented through a
resilience analysis grid (RAG).
Results: The paper displays an approach to defining the corporative resilient capacities; a framework
for identification of a resilient profile in different levels of conceptualization (RAG); an identification of
the strength of the potential determinants.
Conclusion: The appliance of the determinant model provides answers to the research questions for the
potential strengths of resilience capacity determinants in the companies in North Macedonia. The resilience
analysis grid (RAG) visualizes the strength of the potential determinants and secures directions
for safety management, especially in continuous conditions of long lasting economic shocks.
Organizational resilience, Resilience dimensions, Adaptive capacity, Resilience analysis grid (RAG).
Bhamidipaty, A., & Banavar, G., Lotlikar, R. (2007). RMI: A Framework for Modeling and Evaluating
the Resiliency Maturity of IT Service Organizations. Conference: IEEE International
Automation Science and Engineering, 2007
Burnard, K., & Bhamra, R. (2011): Organisational resilience: development of a conceptual framework
for organisational responses, International Journal of Production Research,49:18, 5581-
Boylan, S.A., Turner, K.A., 2017. Developing organizational adaptability for complex environment.
J. Leadership Educ. 16 (2), 183–198.
Baggio, J. A., Brown, K., & Hellebrandt, D. (2015). Boundary object or bridging concept? A citation
network analysis of resilience. Ecology and Society, 20(2), 2.
Bonanno G. A. Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity
to thrive after extremely adverse events? American Psychologist. 2004; 59: 20–28.
Bonanno G. A., Westphal M., Mancini A. D. Resilience to loss and potential trauma. Annual Review
of Clinical Psychology. 2011; 7: 511–535.
Bakker, A., Albrecht, S., & Leiter, M. (2011). Key questions regarding work engagement. European
Journal of Work, 20(1), 4–28
Bande, B., Fernández-Ferrín, P., Varela, J. A., & Jaramillo, F. (2015). Industrial marketing management
emotions and salesperson propensity to leave: The effects of emotional intelligence and
resilience. Industrial Marketing Management, 44, 142–153.
Carmeli, A., & Markman, G.D. (2011). Capture, governance, resilience: Strategy implication from
the history of Rome. Strategic management Journal, 32(3),322-341
Conz, E., Magnani, G. (2020). A dynamic perspective on the resilience of firms: A systematic
literature review and a framework for future research. European Management Journal 38
Denyer, D. (2017). Organizational Resilience: A summary of academic evidence, business insights
and new thinking. BSI and Cranfield School of Management.
Dewald, J. and Bowen, F. E. (2010), “Storm clouds and silver linings: responding to disruptive
innovations through cognitive resilience”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(1): 197-
Demmer, A. W., Vickery, K. S., & Calantone, R. (2011). Engendering resilience in small-and medium-
sized enterprises (SMEs): A case study of Demmer Corporation. International Journal
of Production Research 49(18):5395-5413
Duchek, S. (2020). Organizational resilience: a capability-based conceptualization. Business Research
Endsley, M. R., Bolte, B., and Jones, D. G. (2003). Designing for situation awareness: An approach
to user-centered design, Taylor and Francis, London.
Everly, G. S. (2011). Building a resilient organizational culture. Harvard Business Review, 10(2),
Freeman, F. S., Hirschhorn, L., Triad, M. M. (2003). Moral purpose and organizational resilience:
Sandler O’Neill & partners, L.P. in the aftermath of September 11, 2001. Academy of Management
Best Conference Paper 2003 ODC: B6
Fiksel, J. (2006) Sustainability and resilience: toward a systems approach, Sustainability: Science,
Practice and Policy, 2:2, 14-21
Hollnagel, E. (2006). Resilience: The challenge of the unstable. In E. Hollnagel, D. D. Woods, & N.
C. Leveson (Eds.), Resilience engineering: Concepts and precepts (pp. 9-18).
Hollnagel, E. (2011) Resilience engineering and the built environment. Building Research & Information,
Ismail, H. S., Poolton, J., & Sharifi, H. (2011). The role of agile strategic capabilities in achieving
resilience in manufacturing-based small companies. International Journal of Production Research,
ISO 31000, 2018. Risk management – Guidelines. International Organization for Standardization,
Kalowski, A. (2015). Structure Determining Factors of Business Organization. International Journal
of Innovation and Technology Management 6(3):206-212
King, D. D., Newman, A., & Luthans, F. (2015). Not if, but when we need resilience in the workplace.
Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(5), 782–786.
Linnenluecke, M. K. (2017). Resilience in business and management research: A review of influential
publications and a research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews,
Lengnick-Hall, C. A., Beck, T. E., & Lengnick-Hall, M. L. (2011). Developing a capacity for organizational
resilience through strategic human resource management. Human Resource Management
Review, 21(3), 243e255.
Linnenluecke, M. K., & Griffiths, A. (2010). Beyond adaptation: Resilience for business in light of
climate change and weather extremes. Business & Society, 49, 477-511
Limnios, E. M., Mazzarol, T., Ghadounani, A. (2014). The Resilience Architecture Framework:
Four Organizational archetypes. European Management Journal 2014(32):104-116
McManus, S. (2008). “Organisational resilience in New Zealand.” Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Canterbury,
Christchurch, New Zealand.
McManus, S., Seville, E., Vargo, J., and Brunsdon, D. (2008). “A facilitated process for improving
organizational resilience.” Nat. Hazards Rev., 9(2), 81–90.
Mache, S., Vitzthum, K., Wanke, E., David, A., Klapp, B., & Danzer, G. (2014). Exploring the impact
of resilience, self-efficacy, optimism and organizational resources on work engagement.
Work, 47(4), 491–500
Mamouni, Limnios, E. A., Mazzarol, T., Chadouani, A., & Schillizi, S. C. M. (2014). Resilience
architecture framework: Four organizational archetypes. European Management Journal,
Masten A. S. Global perspectives on resilience in children and youth. Child Development. 2014a;
NIAC (National Infrastructure Advisory Council), 2009. Critical Infrastructure Resilience: Final
Report and Recommendations. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC.
Patriarca, R., Bergström, J., Di Gravio, G., Costantino, F. (2018) Resilience engineering: Current
status of the research and future challenges, Safety Science (0925-753), Vol. 102, pp. 79-100
Rehak, D. (2020). Assessing and strengthening organisational resilience in a critical infrastructure
system: Case study of the Slovak Republic. Safety Science Volume 123
Roth, E. M., Multer, J., and Raslear, T. (2006). “Shared situation awareness as a contributor to high
reliability performance in railroad operations.” Organ. Stud., 27(7), 967.
Rudolph, J.W., Repenning, N. “Disaster dynamics: understanding the role of quantity in organizational
collapse,” Admin Sci Quarterly, vol. 47, 2002, pp. 1-30
Sutcliffe, K.M., Vogus, T.J. “Organizing for resilience,” in Positive Organizational Scholarship, K.
Cameron, J.E. Dutton, R.E. Quinn, Eds. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2003, pp. 94-110.
Sheffi, Y., & Rice Jr., B. J. (2005) A Supply Chain View of the Resilient Enterprise. Mit Sloan
Management Review, 47(1), 41-48
Sevile, E., Brunsdon, D., Dantas, A. (2008) Organisational resilience: Researching the reality of New
Zealand organisations. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 2(2):258-6
Shin, J., Taylor, M. S., & Seo, M.G. (2012). Resources for change: The relationships of organizational
inducements and psychological resilience to employees’ attitudes and behaviors toward
organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 55(3), 727–748.
Southwick, S. M., Bonanno, G. A., Masten, A. S., Panter-Brick, C., & Yehuda, R. (2014). Resilience
definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives. European journal of
psychotraumatology, 5(1), 25338.
Tillement, S., Cholez, C., Reverdy, T. (2009). Assessing organizational resilience: An interactionist
approach. Management 12(4), 230-265
Taleb, N. N. (2012). “Antifragility as a mathematical idea”. Nature. 494 (7438): 430.
Taleb, N., & Douady, R. (2013). Mathematical Definition, Mapping, and Detection of (Anti)Fragility.
Quantitative Finance 13(11)
Vogus J. T., & Sutcliffe, M. K. (2007) Organizational Resilience: Towards a Theory and Research
Agenda. Conference: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man
and Cybernetics, Canada, 2007
Välikangas, L. & Romme, A.G.L. (2012). Building resilience capabilities at “Big Brown Box,
Inc.”. Strategy & Leadership, 40, pp. 43– 45
Weick, K.E., Sutcliffe, K.M. Managing the Unexpected. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 2001
Weick, K. E. & Sutcliffe, K. M. (2007). Managing the Unexpected Resilient Performance in an Age
of Uncertainty. Personal Psychology, 62(3), 646-652
Woods, D.D (2015). Four concepts for resilience and the implications for the future of resilience
engineering. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 141, 5-9
Xiao, L. & Cao, H. (2017). Organizational Resilience: The Theoretical Model and Research Implication.
ITM Web of Conferences 12(18):04021
Yao Hu et al., (2008) Towards Modeling of Resilience Dynamics in Manufacturing Enterprises:
Literature Review and Problem Formulation. Conference: IEEE International Automation
Science and Engineering, 2008. CASE 2008.