Vesna Lukovic – Independent researcher, Thessaloniki, Greece, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
5th International Scientific Conference – EMAN 2021 – Economics and Management: How to Cope With Disrupted Times, Online/Virtual, March 18, 2021, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS published by: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans, Belgrade, Serbia; ISBN 978-86-80194-43-1, ISSN 2683-4510
The junction of economy, law and technology is an important topic in the world that is increasingly
moving online. Digital platforms “match” supply and demand by using large amounts of
data and algorithms. Some digital platforms dominate travel markets because of platforms’ data and
networks effects. Digital platforms in travel industry use algorithms to generate suggestions to consumers
via recommendation (ranking) systems. Ranking has important implications not only for business
users of digital platforms, but for consumers’ choice as well. This research explores motivations to
participate in digital platforms for short-term vacation rental and it sheds light on information asymmetries
in regard to algorithms generating ranking in search results. This research also briefly explores
EU regulatory approach to digital platforms and looks at the latest EU legal texts in regard to
fairness and transparency in ranking.
Fairness, Ranking, EU Regulation, Algorithm.
Airbnb website at https://www.airbnb.co.uk/help/article/1857/what-are-airbnb-service-fees.
See Airbnb’s Terms of Services for European Users (‘ToS”), available at
Booking.com website at : Trip Terms and Conditions
. About ranking and guest reviews see point 8. in Trip Terms and
Di Porto, F. and Zuppetta, M. (2020) “Co-regulating algorithmic disclosure for digital platforms”,
Policy and Society, [Online] https://doi.org/10.1080/14494035.2020.1809052
European Economic and Social Committee EESC (2014), “Collaborative or participatory consumption:
a sustainable model for the 21st century”. OJ C 177, pp.1.
European Commission (2017), “Exploratory study of consumer issues in online peer-to-peer platform
markets.” Final Report. [Online]
European Commission (2018) “Impact assessment of the Proposal for a Regulation of the European
Parliament and of the Council on promoting fairness and transparency for business
users of online intermediation services.” [Online] https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/
European Parliament (2018) “Consumer Choice and Fair Competition on the Digital
Single Market in the Areas of Air Transportation and Accommodation”. [Online]https://www.
Graef, I. (2020), “Effective Enforcement Matters More Than New Rules in the EU’s Efforts to
Regulate Gatekeeping Platforms”. [Online] https://promarket.org/2020/10/11/effective-enforcement-
Guidelines on ranking transparency pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 of the European Parliament
and of the Council, OJ C 424, 8.12.2020, pp.1-26.
Henten, A. and Windekilde, I. (2015) “Transaction costs and the sharing economy”.
26 European ITS Conference, Madrid, Spain, June 2015. [Online] https://ideas.repec.org/s/zbw/
Judgement of the Court as of 19 December 2019, Case C390/18, case law reference
Jhaver, J.S., Karpfen, Y. and Antin, J. (2018) “Algorithmic Anxiety and Coping Strategies of
Airbnb Hosts” Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing
Systems, pp.1-12. Montreal, Canada, April.
Marsden, P. and Podszun, R. (2020) “Restoring Balance to Digital Competition – Sensible Rules,
Effective Enforcement”. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung e. V. 2020, Berlin, Germany.
Opinion of the Advocate General, Case C-390/18, case law reference ECLI:EU:C:2019:1112, para
71, pp. 17
Regulation (EU) 2019/1150 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on
promoting fairness and transparency for business users of online intermediation services,
OJ L 186, pp. 57–79 . (“P2B Regulation”).
Szpunar, M. (2020) “Reconciling new technologies with existing EU law – Online platforms as
information society service providers”. Maastricht
Journal of European and Comparative Law, Volume: 27 issue: 4, pp. 399-405