Kateřina Chaloupková, Liběna Jarolímková
​University of Economics, Prague, W. Churchill Sq. 1938/4, 13067 Prague, Czech Republic
DOI: https://doi.org/10.31410/EMAN.2018.754
2nd International Scientific Conference – EMAN 2018 – Economics and Management: How to Cope With Disrupted Times, Ljubljana – Slovenia, March 22, 2018, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS published by: Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans, Belgrade, Serbia; Faculty of Management Koper, Slovenia; Doba Business School – Maribor, Slovenia; Integrated Business Faculty –  Skopje, Macedonia; Faculty of Management – Zajecar, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-80194-11-0


Authors examine the topic of decrease of the need for human intervention in tourism services, which arises in the context of human workforce being replaced by artificial intelligence. Gradually, all tourism services become less personal and more self-serviced. This topic has not yet been researched in a complex manner from the point of view of tourism stakeholders. This work evaluates current state of automation and robotization in tourism and presents concrete examples from the industry, where human factor is being replaced by technology solutions. The article present results of a study examining the participants’ attitude to self-service systems while travelling. The study was carried out through a questionnaire distributed to a randomized sample of respondents representing a wide range of age, educational background, and region of residence within the Czech Republic. Key findings indicate high potential for the development of new technologies, automated processes and artificial intelligence in tourism establishments, particularly in regard to competitiveness, service quality, and lack of qualified workforce. There are two equally significant opinion streams within the respondents’ answers: One group denies fundamental need for human presence in tourism services and prefers self-service systems, the other group considers the personal touch and human factor irreplaceable. The discussion considers the possibilities for application of automated technology and its acceptability in tourism services in the Czech Republic. The conclusion can be a motivation for further studies of the impact that automated and robotic instruments have on individual stakeholders, not only in the tourism sector but in the service sector in general. 

Key words

Tourism, Robotization, Automation, Self-Service


  1. ALBINO, Vito, Umberto BERARDI and Rosa Maria DANGELICO. Smart Cities: Definitions, Dimensions, Performance, and Initiatives. Journal of Urban Technology [online]. 2015, 22(1), 3-21 [accessed on 2018-03-16]. DOI: 10.1080/10630732.2014.942092.
  2. Automation and Independent Work in a Digital Economy: Policy brief in the future of work. In: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [online]. OECD, 2016 [accessed on 2018-03-16]. Available at: https://www.oecd.org/employment/future-of-work/
  3. AYRES, Robert and Steven MILLER. Robotic Realities: Near-Term Prospects and Problems. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science.1983, 470, 28-55. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/1044798
  4. FAMSF Improves Museum Access with Beam Device. In: The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco [online]. 2018 [accessed on 2018-03-14]. Available at: https://www.famsf.org/about/technology/beam
  5. GARSOMBKE, Thomas W. and Diane J. GARSOMBKE. Strategic Implications Facing Small Manufacturers: The Linkage Between Robotization, Computerization, Automation and Performance. Journal of Small Business Management [online]. 1989, vol. 27, no. 4, s. 34. ISSN 00472778.
  6. GRAETZ, Georg and Guy MICHAELS. Is Modern Technology Responsible for Jobless Recoveries? American Economic Review [online]. 2017, 107(5), 168-173 [accessed on 2018-02-16]. DOI: 10.1257/20171100. ISSN 00028282.
  7. GRETZEL, Ulrike et al. Smart tourism: foundations and developments. Electronic Markets [online]. 2015, vol. 25, no. 3, s. 179-188. ISSN 10196781.
  8. HOLLON, Charles J. and George N. ROGOL. How Robotization Affects People. Business Horizons [online]. 1985, 28 (3), 74-80 [accessed on 2018-03-11]. ISSN 00076813.
  9. Hotel Features. In: Aloft Cupertino [online]. [accessed on 2018-03-14]. Available at: https://www.aloftcupertino.com/hotel-features
  10. CHALOUPKOVA, Katerina and Libena JAROLIMKOVA. New Approaches in Tourism Marketing as a Result of New Technologies Development. Working paper. 2018
  11. Infodécor: Video service for your seminars and conventions. In: Disneylandparis-business.com [online]. Disney, 2018 [accessed on 2018-03-20]. Available at: https://disneylandparis-business.com/en/services/infodecor
  12. Iniciativa Průmysl 4.0. In: Ministerstvo průmyslu a obchodu ČR [online]. 2.9.2016 [accessed on 2018-03-16]. Available at: https://www.mpo.cz/cz/prumysl/zpracovatelsky-prumysl/prumysl-4-0-ma-v-cesku-sve-misto–176055/
  13. KYZEK, Jan, Karol ONDRIGA and Pavol BOZEK. A man and his place in automated and robotic systems. Annals of DAAAM [online]. 2011, 1575-1576 [accessed on 2018-02-16]. ISSN 17269679.
  14. LEONTIEF, Wassily. Technological Advance, Economic Growth, and the Distribution of Income. Population and Development Review [online]. Population Council, 1983, Vol. 9, No. 3, 403-410 [accessed on 2018-03-18]. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/1973315
  15. LEOSTE, Janika. Tourism and Robotization. In: ToolBox-travel marketing & consulting [online]. 2017 [accessed on 2018-03-13]. Available at: https://www.toolboxtravel.fi/tourism-and-robotization
  16. LÓPEZ PELÁEZ, Antonio. Trends of automation and robotic systems in manufacturing and services. In: The Industrial Robot. Vol. 28, no. 4. ProQuest Central, 2001, s. 287-290. ISSN 0143991X.
  17. MONIZ, António B. and Bettina-Johanna KRINGS. Special Issue on Robots and the Work Environment. Societies [online]. 2016, vol. 6, no. 4, s. 31.
  18. Nestlé to use humanoid robot to sell Nescafé in Japan. In: Nestlé [online]. 29.10.2014 [accessed on 2018-03-14]. Available at: https://www.nestle.com/media/news/nestle-humanoid-robot-nescafe-japan
  19. POL, Eduardo and James REVELEY. Robot induced technological unemployment: towards a youth-focused coping strategy. Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management [online]. 2017, vol. 5, no. 2, s. 169-186. ISSN 2332399X.
  20. PRIESTLEY, Theo. Umělá inteligence podle Facebooku. Měli bychom se jí bát? In: Forbes [online]. 13.9.2015 [accessed on 2018-03-20]. Available at: https://www.forbes.cz/je-na-miste-bat-se-umele-inteligence-kterou-vyviji-facebook/
  21. RAJESH, Monisha. On the radar Inside Japan’s first robot-staffed hotel. In: Guardian News [online]. 14.8.2015 [accessed on 2018-03-14].
  22. Revoluce dovedností 2.0: Řešení revoluce dovedností není v robotech, ale v lidech [online]. ManpowerGroup, 2018, s. 1-12 [accessed on 2018-03-16]. Available at: https://www.manpowergroup.cz/pruzkumy/reseni-revoluce-dovednosti-neni-v-robotech-ale-lidech/
  23. Robot tours. In: National Museum of Australia [online]. [accessed on 2018-03-14]. Available at: https://www.nma.gov.au/engage-learn/school-programs/digital-outreach/robot-tours
  24. Robot Bartenders Shake Things Up At Sea. In: Royal Caribbean [online]. 20.9.2016 [accessed on 2018-03-14]. Available at: https://www.royalcaribbean.com/connect/robot-bartenders-shake-things-up-at-sea/
  25. Samoobslužný check-in a check-out pro hotely. CZECH KIOSK s.r.o. [online]. [accessed on 2018-04-09]. Available at: https://czech-kiosk.cz/sluzby/vyvoj-software-miru/samoobsluzny-check-check-pro-hotely/
  26. TANNER, William R. The manager’s role in robotization. Management Review [online]. 1984, 73 (6), 15-17 [accessed on 2018-02-16]. ISSN 00251895.
  27. Travellers Expect Robots on Their Holidays by 2020: First Global Study on the Acceptance of Robots Working in Travel. In: Travelzoo [online]. 16.3.2016 [accessed on 2018-03-14]. Available at: https://press.travelzoo.com/robophiles–robophobes–britons-divided-over-use-of-robots-in-travel/
  28. VADUVA-SAHHANOGLU, Alina, Madalina CALBUREANU-POPESCU and Siemon SMID. Automated and Robotic Construction – a Solution for the Social Challenges of the Construction Sector. Revista De Stiinte Politice [online]. 2016, no. 50, s. 211-220. ISSN 1584224X.
  29. VÁMOS, Tibor. The human role in the age of information. AI & Society [online]. 2014, vol. 29, no. 2, s. 277-282. ISSN 09515666.
  30. WRIGHT, Ian. What Is Industry 4.0, Anyway? In: Engineering.com [online]. 22.2.2018 [accessed on 2018-03-16]. Available at: https://www.engineering.com/AdvancedManufacturing/ArticleID/16521/What-Is-Industry-40-Anyway.aspx
  31. ZAITSEVA, Natalia A. et al. Foresight technologies usage in working out long term. Forecasts of service and tourism personnel training system development. Journal of Environmental Management & Tourism [online]. 2015, vol. 6, no. 2, s. 410-413. ISSN 20687729.
  32. ŽUFAN, Jan. Trendy v zaměstnanosti v hotelnictví v EU. Sborník recenzovaných příspěvků z mezinárodní vědecké konference Hotelnictví, turismus a vzdělávání. Praha: Vysoká škola hotelová v Praze. 2014, s. 396–403, ISBN 978-80-87411-60-5.

Association of Economists and Managers of the Balkans – UdEkoM Balkan
179 Ustanicka St, 11000 Belgrade, Republic of Serbia